Red Light Therapy For Great Skin And Happiness

Maintaining great skin is all about stimulating collagen, and this can be done in a number of ways. Vitamins A,E,C and the various acid and peel treatments and IPL are fantastic for stimulating collagen. Most of these treatments rely on inflammation to get the skin cell turnover rate up and as a result plump up the skin, but under the ‘Stimulating Collagen’ banner there is another fantastic treatment available that does not damage the skin in any way.   CBD Oil Manufacturer

Even though Light therapy has been around for a while, it is considered the latest breakthrough in skin care technology. This is because Red Light therapy is capable of combating the signs of ageing such as wrinkles and dry skin. It is basically like photosynthesis in plants. Just as plants use chlorophyll to convert sunlight into cellular building blocks, RED light triggers natural intracellular chemical processes that can produce cellular turnover and production of collagen and elastin fibres. RED light triggers the production of ATP in the mitochondria in the skin, the mitochondria releases energy which triggers cell production. This energy release increases the production of healthy cells which in turn replace the damaged ones. Unlike other light treatments, such as IPL or Laser this procedure does not rely on heat to damage the dermal layer but instead the cells receive an energy boost. It is important to understand that there are no UV rays with this treatment so it is 100% safe with no known contra indications.

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As mentioned earlier, light therapy has been used in medical environments to improve wound healing for many years, and now as the price of equipment has come down, beauty salons and spas have started introducing them. The anti-aging spectrum for light is 615nm and 640nm, which creates the RED light. Using light at specific frequencies triggers the receptors in the brain; the different frequencies trigger different responses. RED light is proven to stimulate the production of collagen and elastin in the skin and also counteract the effects of ageing and sun damage. Clinical tests in co-operation with the University of Pavia measured 20.2% reduction in wrinkle volume, 24.7% improvement in moisturisation in the skin and a 15.1% improvement in smoothness of the skin. The process uses wavelengths in the visible light spectrum to send light into the skin layers. When applied to the skin this light energy activates a reaction of cellular activity, which is known as photo modulation. The light is absorbed by the cell and is then dispersed evenly to stimulate the body’s own cellular collagen producing mechanisms which in turn promotes skin rejuvenation and skin heath. Ideally you would do these treatments at least 4-5 times a week for 4-6 weeks, near the end of this treatment cycle you will start to see a difference in your skin tone and texture. The key to successful red light therapy is to understand that it takes time. Consider that you are not only turning back the clock, you are actually slowing down the aging process.

RED light machines originally targeted the face, although now red light is available in the form of collagen beds to treat the entire body. This is a very exciting development as often we spend a lot of time and money on skin care for our faces but the rest of the body misses out. As you age, especially over the age of 50, you will find that you skin will begin to sag all over the entire body. Collagen beds assist in slowing this aging process down. It is being touted at the ‘next big thing after Botox’. As well as anti-aging, there are numerous other benefits, headaches can be alleviated, and poor circulation can be improved as the RED light relaxes blood vessels allowing stronger blood flow. Depression and seasonal affected disorder (SAD) are also treated with light. Soft tissue injuries and sprains are also assisted with the use of light therapy. New benefits are being discovered every day including reduction in the effects of sexual dysfunction, although there may not be any scientific support for these claims at this time.

 

Top Cairns Tourist Attractions

What are the top Cairns tourist attractions? Here’s some info on places to visit when in Cairns, Australia.

About Cairns:

Cairns is a relatively small city located in the northern part of Queensland, Australia. It lies in quite an isolated region which is 1700km from Brisbane by road, and roughly 2,400km from Sydney. Despite its location, there are many attractions to be found surrounding Cairns which mean it is the fourth most popular tourist destination to international visitors in Australia behind the likes of metropolitan Sydney, Melbourne and Brisbane. Apart from its year round tropical climate the main pull for Cairns is its proximity to the Great Barrier Reef. Most boats go from the fleet terminal, minutes walk away from the CBD and within an hour you are in the heart of the Great Barrier Reef.

This is without a doubt the number one reason why tourists flock to Cairns.   CBD Isolate Wholesale

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The Great Barrier Reef is considered one of the seven natural wonders of the world. It is the largest coral reef in the world with more than 3,000 individual reef systems and even more wildlife. With that in mind it is hardly surprising that it is considered time after time in the top ten dive sites in the world.

There’s a number of ways to experience the Great Barrier Reef from diving to snorkeling to the less wet glass bottom boat option. Whichever way you choose, you’ll soon discover why it is the number one Cairns attraction amidst many other Cairns tourist attractions.

 

CBD Hemp Oil Health Advantages: What Is CBD Hemp Oil?

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What is CBD Hemp Oil?
CBD, also referred to as Cannabidiol, is just one particular of eighty five different chemical compounds in cannabis plants. CBD Hemp Oil is derived from hemp, or hashish developed with very little THC (often significantly less than .three%). For the sake of this report we will refer to marijuana as hashish grown for its psychoactive effects, and hemp as hashish developed for its practical uses as a fiber. Cannabis is marketed for its THC content material and hemp is utilized for its CBD articles.
THC is the psychoactive or intoxicating compound found in cannabis plants whereas, CBD oil is not psychoactive or intoxicating and has revealed sturdy symptoms of getting an effective therapy for a selection of diseases and mental wellness ailments.
The place Can I Get CBD Hemp Oil?
Hemp oil is lawful in all fifty states but the manufacturing of CBD Hemp Oil is not. Even however equally come from cannabis, hemp oil is derived from sterile hashish seeds, which are authorized below the Controlled Substances Act. CBD Oil is derived from the plant’s flowers which are not authorized in some states. Nevertheless, this will not end the import of CBD oil produced from industrialized hemp developed lawfully, which is why you happen to be in a position to purchase it lawfully on the internet.
You can find products made up of hemp oil in the attractiveness area of your local retail retailer, but to get CBD Oil you may both want to be in a point out where it really is authorized to create or obtain an import.
CBD Hemp Oil Well being Benefits
CBD Oil has been revealed to have remarkably positive effects on a assortment of illnesses. Some of the Cannabidiol health rewards are:
Nausea treatment
Reduced stress
Ache relief
Enhanced mood
Lessening withdrawal indicators
Seizure reduction
Stimulating hunger
CBD operates by activating the body’s serotonin (anti-depressant result), vanilloid (soreness aid), and adenosine (anti-inflammatory impact) receptors. How swiftly you begin to feel the outcomes from CBD Oil relies upon on how it was ingested and your excess weight. Somebody tiny who ingested the oil in spray type will really feel the effects considerably more quickly than a bigger person ingesting CBD in capsule form.
Diverse Forms of CBD Hemp Oil
CBD Hemp Oil can get on several diverse varieties, which includes liquids, ointments, and sprays, and capsules. Most oils and sprays are used by putting the substance under your tongue. Ointments are employed on and absorbed by the skin, and thirdly capsules are ingested. Individuals who will not like the flavor of sprays or oils can defer to capsules. Capsules are a very hassle-free way to take in Cannabidiol, even so you don’t absorb as considerably CBD from a capsule as you do from an oil or spray place beneath your tongue.
CBD vape oil is the exact same as typical CBD Hemp Oil – it’s just taken into the physique in a diverse way. You just fill your vape pen with Cannabidiol and presto, you have got yourself a vape with well being positive aspects.
CBD Oil sold online are not as potent as people medically recommended for serious ailments but they can assist with mood issues, decrease anxiety, and reduce ache caused by swelling.
CBD Hemp Oil Aspect Effects
While not considerably analysis has been done but on the facet outcomes of CBD Oil, regardless of whether absorbed, swallowed as a capsule or inhaled by way of a CBD vape pen, the most generally aspect consequences described are digestive issues, such as upset abdomen and diarrhea, which are not really frequent.
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Will CBD Hemp oil Display On a Drug Take a look at?
Drug checks are looking for THC, not CBD, and because CBD isn’t going to generate any variety of higher, businesses really have no cause to look for it in the first place. So CBD Oil does not show up on a drug examination. Nonetheless, for this explanation, make certain you obtain pure CBD oil with % THC.
Special Positive aspects of Utilizing Pure CBD Oil
No prescription necessary: Even although they are more potent than normal CBD Oils, most pure CBD Oils do not require a prescription.
% THC: If you’re anxious about employing a cannabis extract simply because you do not want to experience marijuana’s psychoactive effects or fall short a drug take a look at, choose for pure CBD Oil. That contains no THC at all, it really is the safest selection.
Fewer side effects: Pure CBD Oils are significantly less likely to trigger nausea and tiredness.
Acquire Cautions How do you know if you are obtaining high quality CBD Hemp Oil?
Your 1st clue is typically value. If the cost looks too low cost to be real, it almost certainly is.
Often acquire from a reputable supply. A organization that is trustworthy will again their item and will not threat marketing misrepresented objects.
An additional issue to appear for is the way that the solution is marketed. If you see CBD Hemp Oil online that claims to remedy each ailment under the sunlight, it’s also almost certainly too great to be correct.
The best merchandise are created from organically grown hemp and have a CBD concentration over 20mg.
Whilst the medicinal consequences of Cannabidiol are great, preserve your anticipations of online brand names reasonable.

On the internet Video games: A Bittersweet Take care of

They say the human body can go with out food for three weeks, 3 days without having h2o, generally 7-eight minutes without having air. Did you recognize I just outlined the 3 necessities largely needed to sustain human beings or lifestyle for that make a difference? The issue is why all of a unexpected I determined to go all science or encyclopedia on you.
What if I was to inform you although conveniently ignoring our evolution from monkeys, we have advanced to a degree where these three items are no longer the only factors that we require to sustain lifestyle. Knowingly unknowingly, intentionally or unintentionally, little by little and steadily it has crawled its way as 1 of the fundamentals for survival. I am of program talking about cell telephones and its minions (tablets, smartwatches and things).
If we all be trustworthy with ourselves, I guess 90% individuals will agree with me when I say that we are not able to dwell without our mobile phones for lengthier than a minute. Phone it a power of practice, currently being enslaved to them or whatever but that is the sad reality that none of us want to experience. With social networking enjoying a pivotal part in the lives of people of all age groups, men and women seem as if they are infused with a want to turn into “amazing” and as a result, the need for cell phones has risen significantly. That vibration and sound of acquiring a message have grow to be a lot more crucial than ingesting, sleeping, and all working day-to-working day routines.
Phantom notification syndrome (the tendency of an individual to imagine they acquired a notification when they have really not) is not just an observation about the youth but for nearly all people with a “smartphone” these times. It is as if we have been programmed to check out up on our phone every single moment or two for no suggestive cause. And if it is not to verify up on our zero messages it is either to get a selfie, or just to console ourselves we are seeking wonderful, or to enjoy video games. In a very rare instance, it is a task exterior these three classes.
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And if we look at objectively, after messaging/texting/tweeting/Instagramming, the up coming favourite issue of men and women is to tire out their fingers playing game titles.
Soon after WhatsApp, Fb, Twitter, Instagram this is the thing in common in all products. So basic and yet so addictive. The fad for the online game is these kinds of that at a position even I began playing it and I do not don’t forget how my pursuing thirty day period passed. I indicate there cannot be a solitary individual who does not every day get flooded with games requests daily. It truly is difficult to set to words and phrases as to what can make the cellular game this addictive it is dope audio outcomes, its ever-growing difficulty as you development, its basic interface, or what, is a mystery nevertheless to be solved. But there is one point laid down in concrete – it’s absolutely likely to continue to be a favorite amid individuals for a lengthy time to come.

Cannabis Developments of the 21st Century

In 2012 6-calendar year-previous Jayden David, who suffers from Dravet’s Syndrome, was presented liquefied cannabis drops and for the initial time because he was four months previous, went an total day without a seizure. At 1 point, Jayden was recommended 22 anti-seizure pills a day, and although they controlled the seizures, the capsules still left him immobilized because of to the facet results. But a non-psychoactive kind of cannabis that does not get him substantial, has now permitted him to run and enjoy like other children. Jayden and hundreds of thousands of men and women close to the world, who experience from a selection of ailments, advantage from the medicinal attributes of high cannabinoid or higher CBD marijuana strains. Cannabinoids are the main chemical substances in marijuana. In recent many years, a variety of research and experiments have resulted in creation of large CBD marijuana strains and in a big per cent of these strains, THC is non-existent. But it doesn’t take study to know that inhaling any kind of smoke into your lungs is undesirable for your wellness. Since of this, new approaches to administer health-related cannabis are being invented so the affected person no longer has to smoke to medicate. Cannabinoids can be so advantageous the human mind has two created-in cannabinoid receptors, which regulate specified physique features. These are just some of the advances in the research and review of high CBD health-related cannabis in the twenty first century.
Cannabinoids are the major medicinal component in cannabis. Even though THC is the principal psychoactive ingredient, cannabinoids are recognized to have anti-psychotic properties, which counter the consequences of THC. With this in mind, creation labs are now increasing strains of cannabis that incorporate a large focus of CBD’s. Some of these strains have CBD concentrations as substantial as twenty%, which enable men and women residing with illness to reward from medical cannabis with out the higher connected with THC. Up until finally just lately, a huge concern for some, was the truth that in buy to use health-related cannabis, an person had to get large as a side effect. That produced numerous concern the intentions of a so-named medical marijuana patient. Does he or she really have an ailment or do they just want to get high? With large CBD strains, obtaining substantial is no longer a factor although medicating with cannabis. Consequently these strains will make it protected for everybody, from small youngsters to aged older people, to medicate with no worry of any intoxicating results. The development of large CBD marijuana ought to continue to support entirely get rid of the stigma from its health-related use.
There was a time when if a client desired to use healthcare marijuana, not only did they have to get large, they had to smoke it. Smoking cigarettes something includes inhaling hazardous chemicals into your lungs that were unveiled as the medium burned. These days there are many methods of administering and self-dosing health care marijuana. They selection from vaporizing, cooking, and drinks, to oral sprays and tinctures. Vaporizing involves heating cannabis to a point where it produces a vapor, then inhaling the vapor into the lungs. For smokers, vaporizing is the non-smoked approach most usually advised as an option to cigarette smoking since vaporization releases about five compounds, whereas using tobacco cannabis releases about 111 various compounds. Cooking with health care cannabis requires heating marijuana and butter. The butter traps the chemical compounds and is then utilized in any dish of the patient’s selection. A variety of drinks can also be made with the butter or some can be acquired presently made. Tonics and tinctures are created when marijuana is soaked in an alcoholic beverages solution, transferring the cannabinoids to the liquid. The tincture can then be rubbed on skin, taken by drops or sprayed into the mouth and place into foodstuff and consume recipes as effectively. Medical marijuana also comes in the forms of all set-produced sweet and various other sweets, all of the high CBD kind. Nonetheless, as with any sort of medication, the attractively packaged items ought to be held out of attain of kids.
Cannabinoids in healthcare marijuana have the very same impact as the cannabinoids that previously happen in each and every individual. The human entire body by natural means generates cannabinoids equivalent to these of marijuana on its own. Researchers at Brown University have demonstrated that the brain creates anandamide, which is a ache suppressing cannabinoid. This in a natural way produced chemical affects the CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors of the human nervous and immune methods respectively. These cannabinoids regulate physiological procedures which includes urge for food, pain-feeling, temper, and memory. They also control rest patterns and act as natural inflammatory brokers. CBD’s from medicinal cannabis have been recognized for their capability to act as anti-oxidants in the mind. German researchers have located that cannabinoids are capable of not only cleansing broken mind cells, but also triggering the production of new mind cells. This has led to substantial CBD marijuana being researched as a treatment for concussions in expert athletes. With the extra CBD’s from medicinal marijuana, sufferers can be treated for a range of other illnesses and problems. The cannabis could be recommended for something from easy hunger loss to soreness caused multiple sclerosis because a lot of moments, the kinds developed by the physique are not enough.
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Given that the days of Reefer Insanity, the review and analysis along with adverse views of cannabis have come a lengthy way. Science is offering us a clearer understanding of what is in it and how we can use these ingredients to advantage and take care of illnesses of the troubled. As I’ve demonstrated you, health care cannabis no longer has to be smoked. Much more importantly, substantial CBD cannabis will not get a client substantial, at all. The reality that the human physique makes and employs its own cannabinoids anyway, should be an eye opener to the healthcare subject. Cannabis as a drugs is as or much more powerful than virtually any prescribed drug on earth and investigation is proving that it is so much safer. With the higher from THC currently being negated in substantial CBD cannabis, and new ways of medicating with out smoking cigarettes there is no longer a cause for egocentric companies to keep some thing with the likely to be so beneficial, from individuals who would obviously reward from it.

The Amazing Rewards of Industrial Hemp

There are several benefits to pursuing hemp as an industrial crop. For significantly also lengthy, hemp has been suppressed, and while it thrives in many other international locations, the United States refuses to embrace this wonderful plant. Due to the fact of the United States powerful impact in the globe, its insurance policies affect numerous other international locations, and however this is the situation with hemp. If the United States and the worldwide group would completely embrace hemp, this entire world could change in revolutionary ways.
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The initial wonderful thing about hemp is its abundance and renewability. You can increase upwards of ten tons of hemp on just one particular acre of land, and it only requires four months to yield this volume. No other crop comes near to these kinds of figures. Also, hemp is actually great for the soil and does not drain it, generating it a great soil builder for crop rotation. There is no lack of hemp, just as there is no shortage of the uses for it.
A revitalized hemp sector would produce thousands and thousands of jobs and spark a struggling economic climate. The potential for hemp market is endless. You can make hemp paint, hemp rope, hemp foodstuff, hemp building components, hemp gas… the makes use of go on and on. With this new resource of products, businesses would emerge that would find new and more successful employs for hemp. Some industries would be hurt by hemp existing as a competitor, but that is merely because hemp is far better than several other materials, and why ought to we maintain again one thing fantastic due to the fact it would get rid of one thing significantly less great? Is not making use of hemp the quite definition of cost-free marketing competitiveness? They never ever explained keep again planes since they would set trains out of company occasionally, one thing requirements to die for anything much better to consider its spot.
Eventually, the internet gains from hemp would much outweigh the charges. Several a lot more work would be developed than lost, and as said, those that are misplaced are simply because individuals industries are inferior. Much more importantly, totally embracing hemp will consequence in a cleaner, greener economic climate that could outcome in reversing the greenhouse effect and conserving the planet (when hemp grows, it removes enormous quantities of CO2 from the atmosphere). With all the incredible advantages that can be acquired from developing hemp, it is horrifying to believe that we deny ourselves such fortune since the THC-laden variation of hemp occurs to be an “intoxicant”, and a miraculously medicinal one at that.
One particular day, the world will appear again at the interval of hemp Prohibition, and weep at what was misplaced and what could have been. This assertion applies more to the medicinal element of cannabis, but almost everything that has been ruined is actually terrible.

Discovering Dubai

Dubai is a fascinating city offering a blend of old and new. It has taken less than a century for this once small fishing village to become a modern exciting city and popular holiday destination. Whether you are looking for travel deals for a relaxing break in the sun or an exciting shopping trip, Dubai has it all. The following are just a few of the many things you can do whilst visiting Dubai.  desert safari deals

Hot Air Balloon Ride
Take an early morning hot-air balloon ride across the desert. The view from the sky is amazing as you glide above camels and gazelles who wander freely below you, beautiful green oases and giant red sand dunes. The breathtaking views offer amazing opportunities to catch the beauty of the desert in pictures.

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Seaplane Ride
Take a bird’s eye view of Dubai’s landmarks on a seaplane flight of the city. Take photos and marvel at such iconic landmarks as Dubai Creek, Port Rashid, Dubai Marina, the largest man-made islands The World and The Palm, Burj Al Arab Hotel Jurmeirah, Burj Dubai and the Jebel Ali.

4×4 Desert Safari
Explore the Arabian Desert during the day before relaxing beneath the stars over dinner. Travelling across the desert in a 4×4 gives you the opportunity to take amazing photographs of the surroundings and the beautiful desert sunset, maybe stopping off at a camel farm and even experiencing sandboarding.

4×4 Safari to Hatta
A safari to Hatta allows you to experience a variety of terrain including rocky mountain passes and amazing desert scenery. Dating back to the 16th century, the village of Hatta lies on the banks of the Hatta Wadi (dry river beds). Depending on when you take your last minute holidays to Dubai and the rainfall, you may be able to take a refreshing dip in the beautiful water pools of Hatta.

East Coast Coach Trip
Take a coach trip along Dubai’s east coast, through the Al Dhaid oasis which is renowned for its fruit and vegetable plantations to Masafi, the Hajar mountains, the small port at Dibba, numerous fishing villages where you can enjoy a relaxing swim in the Indian Ocean, Al Badiyah where you will find the oldest mosque in the Emirates, Fujairah with it’s renovated fort, the old citadel of Bitnah and not forgetting Masa where you can enjoy looking around the market.

Sightseeing Tour of Al Ain
Take a trip to the beautiful Garden City of Al Ain. Located in the Hajar Mountains your trip should include a visit to the museum and the recently renovated Old Palace of H.H.Sheikh Zayed who was the late ruler of Abu Dhabi and the late President of the United Arab Emirates, the Hili Gardens which are famous for archaeological excavations from 300BC and the largest camel market in the UAE where you can watch dealers from all over the Gulf buying and selling racing camels.

Hop-on, Hop-off Tour
This is a great way to see all of Dubai’s popular sights at your leisure. All you have to do is buy a ticket which allows you unlimited travel on the open-top double decker buses which travel around the city.

 

Types of Digital Marketing Services

Digital marketing makes use of digital technologies to promote a brand and convert its leads into customers. It makes use of internet as a promotional medium along with mobile, TV and internet. It has now become an important part of every marketing strategy as modern users want companies to have a strong and effective online presence.

The scope of digital marketing is very broad and includes all forms of marketing done through electronic devices. There are many types of digital marketing services and the success of your marketing campaign will depend on understanding which type of services will work best for your business needs.  online marketing jobs

SEO (Search Engine Optimization) – It helps to increase the website’s visibility across search engines. It is a process including several techniques like link building (internal links and back links), content creation, keyword research and technical analysis of the site. A top place on the search engines can help a website get a lot of traffic. Companies providing this service will give you regular reports to monitor the progress of this process and its effects on your site’s position.

Email and Newsletters – It is one of the earliest forms of digital marketing. It includes sending the personalized and targeted messages to meet the requirement of the users. It is an important way to not only stay in touch with customers but also promote new products and offers.

Pay per Click ( PPC) – It helps you increase the visibility of a site through sponsored links on search engine pages. This campaign is relevant to the keywords that people use on search engines. The cost of this campaign will depend on the competitiveness of the keyword you are using. It is very effective instant traffic for specific keywords.

Social Media Marketing – Digital marketing companies pay a lot of stress on this form of marketing. Social media platforms like Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, Pinterest, Instagram, and Google + helps in establishing direct contact with the user. A strong social media presence will help you build an online community to help build the brand’s image, showcase products and services, get feedback directly from end users and attract more potential buyers.

 

Robo Defense for Android Game Review

The game Robo Defense for the Android phone has taken the ever popular free approach with additional features if you purchase the full game. However, the great part about Robo Defense is that it is a fully functional game even if you do not choose to purchase the game to unlock all the extras. Right now, Robo Defense is the best free game in the Tower Defense genre mostly because they are able to fund development with the number of people who purchase the full game. This game is one of the top downloaded games on the free Android game marketplace and is consistently ranking within the top 10 Android games on most game review websites.  GAMING REVIEWS

The general concept of this game is that an army is coming to attack your base and you cannot let them get all the way to the entrance of your base. Thus, you must defend the battlefield outside your base with towers. The towers can be used to block enemies as well as shoot machine guns, rockets, slowing guns, anti-air, and flame throwers. The amount of towers does not seem too impressive when you first load up the game, but just remember that every tower can be upgraded at least once and some can be upgraded significantly more than that.

For each army unit that is coming to attack you that you kill, you get money. With the money you can buy different towers or upgrade your existing which makes this game almost like “leveling up” as you buy new units.

This game is incredibly addicting and very fun. It is highly recommended that you play the free version before purchasing the full game because the tower defense genre is very much a niche genre within the gaming world as is definitely not for everyone. But for those who love tower defense, Robo Defense is the best one out there for the Android phone right now so it is advised that you pick it up. After all, it’s free on the Android Marketplace.

 

A Short Guide to Wristwatches

 

I will attempt to impart some knowledge about wristwatches to those who may not know anything about them. I am a hobbyist in this area, and while I do not plan on writing a scholarly treatise on the subject, I wish to pass information on the subject to those who may know nothing about it. This does not mention everything so any well educated watch enthusiasts who read it will have to keep that in mind. Basically, the briefest history that I can give is as follows. Watches started out as mechanical clock devices filled with gears and springs. The internal moving parts that power the clock or watch is called the movement. Clocks are large, and eventually they were reduced in size to the pocket watch size. People used pocket watches for a few hundred years. They started as jewelry items for kings and the rich, but eventually pocket watches filtered down to the everyman. The first wristwatches were ladies items. Men in the late 1800’s and early 20th century wouldn’t be caught dead wearing a wristwatch because it was seen as a feminine item. Ironically, it was World War One which ushered in the era of mens wristwatches. The wristwatch was compact and could go almost anywhere, and soldiers needed to know the time for timing all sorts of missions and wartime things. Eventually watertight wristwatches were made for navy missions and the dive watch was born. They were also important to military aviators.  Stort udvalg af ure

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Today, most watches are water resistant to varying degrees, from those that are safe when you wash your hands to those that can go deeper than any human can venture outside of a protective submersible. Watches were traditionally mechanical, consisting of a little motor inside that consisted of gears and springs which run from energy stored in the mainspring from winding the watch. Our grandparents and some of our parents can remember these as the only watches in existence at one time. A variation on the mechanical watch is the automatic winding watch, which has the same type of movement but with the addition of a rotating weight on the rear of the movement which rotates with the movement of the wearer’s wrist, thus always keeping the watch wound as long as it is worn. There is a mechanism that prevents over winding. Some automatic watches can be wound via the crown, just like the older non automatic types, and these have the same mechanism built in where you cannot over wind them even from the crown. Older non automatic mechanicals which require hand winding have no such safety feature and if you force it to wind after you encounter resistance, you effectively break the watch and it must be repaired. The manual wind mechanical watches only should be wound once a day at the same time every day to ensure no over winding occurs. These type of watches were frequently broken when in the hands of children, who tend to want to keep them fully wound because they do not fully understand that it only needs one daily winding. There are some types of manual wind mechanical watches that only need one full wind every 8 days, but these are rare.

There was a brief period of battery powered electric watches of a non quartz type were in vogue. These were powered by a battery like modern quartz watches, but they did not rely on the oscillating quartz crystal, but by other means which are outside of the scope of this article. These watches were on the market from the late 1950’s until the 1970’s, being marketed alongside traditional mechanical manual wind and automatic wind watches. The quartz watch was invented in Switzerland in 1962, but the Japanese marketed one first in 1969. This marked a crisis in the Swiss dominated watch industry, and sounded the death knell for many Swiss and American mechanical watch firms. The Swiss followed with their own quartz models, but the Japanese giants Seiko, Citizen, and others were to dominate the overall watch market through inexpensive and even throwaway battery powered quartz watches. A few stalwarts continued to make mechanical watches for wealthy connoisseurs, and firms like Rolex and IWC, among some others, never gave up on mechanical watches, although at times they did produce their own quartz models. You see, when electronic and quartz watches were first available, they were representative of new technology and they were popular for that reason. Some advertisements bragged that the battery powered watch could run on it’s own power, not the wearer’s. They are also much more accurate than any mechanical movement can ever hope to be. It is a running joke, and sometimes an inconvenient truth, that the average very cheap quartz watch keeps better time than a very expensive Swiss mechanical timepiece. Those of us who are practical may not understand why someone would pay thousands for a less accurate watch, but at this level there are many other factors that go into the consideration of which watch one desires to wear.

Mechanical wristwatches underwent a sort of renaissance starting in the 1990’s, which continues to this day. While cheap quartz watches still outsell luxury and other mechanical watches by an order of magnitude, the mechanical watch sector is doing well. Most European watch companies are actually owned by larger conglomerates that have portfolios of several watch brands under their umbrella. The largest one is Swatch. Swatch owns many brands including Swatch, Omega, the former American brand Hamilton, and many others. Swatch also owns the ETA company which makes most of the Swiss watch movements that power not only Swatch brand watches but also many other independent brands. There are some other smaller companies that have started making Swiss movements for sale to other companies, but ETA is the big boy and Swatch is very powerful due to that fact. Mechanical watches are made for all market segments. The Chinese have pretty much cornered the market for the cheaper mechanical watches. The Chinese have been cloning popular Swiss movements (the little mechanical motors that make a mechanical watch run) as well as making their own. They can produce them very cheaply as compared to the Europeans or even the Japanese. China plays both sides of the industry. China is a place where many legitimate watch companies go to outsource for cheap labor and business operating expenses. This is a double edged sword since the Chinese have learned a lot from doing their outsourcing work, learning what it is to build and operate an ISO certified facility, etc. This is not just with watches, but everything that is outsourced to Chinese factories. To their credit, the Chinese are very smart and very shrewd. Unfortunately, many unscrupulous businessmen and officials have turned this knowledge to the task of making counterfeit items. Not only does China produce many very hard to distinguish from the real thing counterfeit watches, but they even have counterfeited the mechanics inside which run the watches. There are differences, and the counterfeits are NOT as good as the real thing, but to look at some of them you almost can’t believe how much they look and feel like the real thing. It is also believed that many high end Swiss watch manufacturers have used the lax Swiss Made regulations to outsource as much of the parts manufacture as they can to the Chinese, then then doing a certain legal amount of assembly in Switzerland in order to use the Swiss Made label. This is not the case with every brand or every Swiss watch, but many people out there wearing Swiss Made watches would be surprised how much of their watch is really Chinese made.

The Japanese have successfully outsourced certain aspects of their watchmaking to China and other places, like Thailand, but they keep a tight lid on what they do and where. The Japanese have a much older watch industry than many Westerners realize. The Japanese big boys are Seiko, Citizen, and Casio, with other smaller subsidiaries and other watch companies taking the rest of the market. Seiko and Citizen not only make a dizzying number of quartz watches, but they also make a fair share of mechanical watches as well. Seiko not only makes many high quality mechanical watches in the affordable consumer range, but they have several quality tiers going all the way up to their Grand Seiko label, which is on par with Swiss makers like Rolex, and prices to match. Citizen makes a Campanola line, which is quartz powered, but the watches are hand made and assembled. The dials and decorations are painted on in a very old artisan tradition in a village that specializes in such art. The watches cost several thousand US dollars each. Citizen also owns a subsidiary named Miyota, which like the Swiss giant Swatch (ETA), sells their movements to other companies to put in their watches. Both ETA and Miyota make mechanical and quartz powered movements. I know that I am jumping around a bit, but there are so many intricacies that if I were to tell the whole story and all of the interrelationships this would not be an article but a book. I want to also mention that not only are quartz watches powered by batteries, but there are an increasing amount that are powered by rechargeable lithium cells. Some recharge via solar power which comes through a special watch dial material, while others are recharged by the way of a traditional mechanical rotating weight affixed to the rear of the watch movement in the same way that mechanical automatic watches are wound. The most popular solar quartz watches are the Citizen Eco Drive line, while Seiko makes the Kinetic line which charge via the mechanical rotating weight that was just mentioned. The Russians are also in the act. Russia has an interesting watch industry. The Swiss sold a lot of their machinery for watch making to the Kremlin a long time ago, and the Russians were producing their own Swiss derived but uniquely evolved Russian movements and watches for the Russian and Soviet Bloc markets until the collapse of the Soviet Union. Since then, the Russian watch industry has undergone some mergers and changes, and privatizations.

The Russians make some good sturdy watches, but parts are hard to get and unless you are willing to send them to Russia for repair if they break you usually have to throw them away. Germany has a longstanding watch industry but today many German companies use Swiss made ETA movements, save for the higher end firms which have their own in house operations. Again, there are so many individual situations that I could never go into it here. You have to become a watch hobbyist and do your time to learn it all. For most middle class people who are not watch enthusiasts, the Rolex watch company represents the pinnacle of luxury watchmaking. I just wanted to burst that bubble. Rolex is a fantastic company which makes fantastic watches. They cost several thousand to several tens of thousands to probably higher, depending on which precious metals and gemstones are used in their production, but there are exclusive boutique brands out there who produce hand made works of art which cost more than many luxury cars to more than the average person’s home. As a matter of fact there are watches out there which cost upwards of a million dollars or more. This may be hard to believe for the average person of average means who would never pay more than $20 for a cheap watch to tell the time, but as with everything, there many levels to this market. One man drives a beat up Honda while some drive Lamborghinis. They all go from point A to point B. It is the same with wristwatches and many other things.

Cases
Modern wristwatch cases and bands are commonly made of metal or plastics. Inexpensive metal ones are constructed of cheap base metals that are coated with chrome or some other outer layer, which usually wear off and then allow the underlying base metal to corrode and turn green along with a sour smell when repeatedly exposed to the wearer’s skin oils and perspiration. Good metal watches are at least made of surgical grade stainless steel. For some more money you can get a watch made of the high tech aviation metal, Titanium. Titanium is much lighter than steel but it is stronger and less susceptible to corrosion from salt water and other corrosives. It also doesn’t contain the nickel that is in stainless steel so it is preferred for those who even have skin reactions to steel. Some people prefer steel since the heavier weight, to them, is somehow synonymous with higher quality. Titanium feels like plastic although it is a genuine metal and is stronger and more durable than steel. It is more brittle than steel but the point is moot since humans can’t break it. They make high tech planes from Titanium alloys. Some watchmakers make steel models from slightly rarer stainless steel alloys, such as 904L stainless that Rolex is known to use in their steel models, which is reputed to be more corrosion resistant and a bit stronger than regular surgical stainless steel. I know of at least one watch manufacturer, the German company Sinn, which uses a form of German U-boat hardened steel to make parts of their watch bezels and perhaps the cases. Expensive dress watches are also made from steel, but as the cost goes up they can be made from precious metals like gold, platinum, and other exotic alloys.

Crystals
The glass which protects the watch dial is called the crystal. Watch crystals used to be made from plastic, or acrylic. You can see this on vintage watches. Plastic scratches easily but can be easily polished with polishing rouge and a rag or sponge. Plastic can also crack if impacted in a hard way. Later on, the industry switched to much stronger mineral glass, which is very hard and shatter resistant but scratches easily. Most inexpensive watches today are fitted with mineral glass and as many of you know once it gets scratched you have to either live with it or have it replaced. Replacement cost is just not feasible on a cheap watch. The other type of crystal, which is on higher end expensive watches but showing up more and more on mid level range watches is sapphire glass. It is artificial sapphire and while not as shatter resistant as mineral glass, it is virtually scratch proof. The only thing that can scratch it is diamond, sapphire, or I believe, ruby. Watch out for diamond dust in some sandpapers and masonry, however. Some skilled people have been able to buff scratches from mineral or sapphire crystals, but it takes effort and know how. For my money I prefer watches with sapphire, but I do own some more affordable models fitted with mineral crystals. Most Seikos, for example, are fitted with mineral crystals, but they are such great watches no true watch enthusiast can call himself one without owning one or several. I would put a Seiko mechanical up against any high end Swiss or German mechanical for sheer durability and toughness.

Servicing
The typical quartz watch will run its battery out in 3-5 years. There are some models that have 10 year batteries, and the solar and kinetics which use rechargeable lithium cells are said to have cell life of 40 years, but they haven’t been out long enough to know if that is their true life or just marketing hype. Mechanical watches, meaning the ones that require winding or which wind when you wear them, can go 3-5 years before they should be sent to a qualified service center for disassembly, cleaning, and lubrication. Depending on the watch brand this can cost several hundred dollars. Well, when the watch itself costs several thousand you don’t simply discard it when it stops running or starts running poorly because it needs service. There was such a day when people kept a watch for life and it was worth repairing. Today, it is usually the watch addict or wealthy watch owner who is willing to put up with such costs, while the majority of people merely pay to have a new battery installed in their quartz timekeeper, or discard the cheap quartz watch for a new one. This is wasteful, and I wonder how many tons of discarded watches and batteries litter our landfills. Think about it. Then again, you won’t want to pay to have a cheap Chinese or Russian mechanical serviced unless you can have it done very cheaply. There is a shortage of qualified mechanical watch repair people, and in many locales the owners must opt to send them long distances to be properly serviced. I would like to add here that the Japanese company, Seiko, is renowned for building pedestrian mechanical watches in their famous Seiko 5 line which have been known to go 20-30 years without a service and still keep acceptable time. This is a reason why I lauded them earlier.

Summary

Watch enthusiasts are amused when people who do not know anything about watches hold up an old mechanical watch that only needs winding and proclaim that it is broken because it is not “working” or that “the battery must need replacing”. Some of these people are old enough to remember when watches didn’t run on batteries, but they have somehow forgotten those days. I always hope to find a gem amongst some yard sale trinkets, but I have not been lucky enough yet. I have read stories where some watch lovers have been lucky enough to come across an old watch in such a yard or garage sale and with some restoration it is worth thousands of dollars, but in many cases us enthusiasts wear them rather than sell them. Collectors run the gamut. Some collect old digital watches. Some opt for military or dive watches. Some stick with vintage pieces while others prefer the latest and greatest objet d’art piece. Watches are rich in history and some people can be taken back to a simpler time by strapping on a historical reproduction of an old wartime timepiece, or if they are fortunate enough, a well preserved original. Some people hand them down as treasured family heirlooms while others make their living catering to the various hobby segments while being lucky enough to earn a living following a passion. I hope that this was an acceptable introduction to watches and that I have been able to enlighten some to the fact that there is more to watches than batteries and throw away trinkets. Perhaps this will encourage you to go out and spend some real money on a real watch which can last you a lifetime.